FPT carries out in-line expansion of subroutines and functions, and unwinds DO loops,
to optimize code for speed of execution. The effects of the optimizations depend on
the host architecture. There are trade-offs between processor speed, memory speed and
instruction cache size. Run times are typically improved by 20% to 40%, and by as much
as a factor of two or more on high performance processors inhibited by memory speed.|
Sub-program calls may interfere seriously with compiler optimizations. Click
for an example.
FPT comments the changes that it makes in the expanded code,
so that it remains readable for debugging. The linear interpolation
INTERP1' called in the example above
can be seen
by clicking here.
FPT expands the call - click
here for the code.
Note that the modified code is marked by bars across the text, and the original statement,
the assignment of
FR', remains in place but
is commented-out. The formal arguments in the function have been replaced by the actual
arguments to the call.
In this example, there was no variable named
I' in the scope of the expanded statement,
so the name of the variable
I' in the
function was retained. Variables are renamed if name clashes occur. Declarations of variables
used in the expansion are inserted in the routines which require them, and they are moved
to COMMON blocks if they have a SAVE attribute or are SAVEd by default.
In-line expansion may be carried out quickly and easily, and it is recommended that users
maintain code in unexpanded form. FPT may therefore be used to resolve a common conflict in
the maintenance of large programs. It is good practice to encapsulate small, frequently used
operations, such as accesses to data structures, in subroutines or functions. Maintenance
changes are then made in only one place. However, a large number of sub-program calls slow
down program execution.
With FPT, users may choose to encapsulate primitive operations and to expand the calls
in-line before the release of production code.
In-line expansion and loop unwinding are controlled by the FPT commands
Expand inline and Unwind loops.
The commands Inline and Unwind may be
written in the code to mark candidate routines and loops for expansion.